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Particle Morphology of Wheat Flour and Gluten-free Flour: Characterisation of Starch and Protein Using MDRS

Wheat flour is expected to reach a global production level of 411 million metric tonnes by 2024, translating to a value of $206bn, based on an average global price of $0.5/kg. Starch is the primary component of wheat flour and serves several functions, including gelatinisation, swelling and pasting of the dough, which is related to the proportion of A- and B-type grains. The composition of each grain type varies, leading to different rates of digestion and hence different glycemic indices. These properties can be adjusted by controlling the relative ratio of A- and B-type starch grains.

In this study, the composition of the powder and particle morphology of three flour products was characterised by Morphologically-Directed Raman Spectroscopy (MDRS®) using the Morphologi® 4-ID. Using this technique, starch particles were differentiated by their chemical identity and subsequently characterised by particle size and shape.

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